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The x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12: The Ultimate Resource for x86 Microprocessor Enthusiasts and Professionals


The x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12: A Comprehensive Guide to Programming and Interfacing the x86 Family of Microprocessors




If you are interested in learning how to program and interface the x86 family of microprocessors, you might want to check out the x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12. This ebook is a comprehensive and practical guide that covers everything you need to know about the x86 microprocessor architecture, programming, and interfacing. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this ebook is about, why you should read it, and what you will learn from it.




the x86 pc mazidi ebook 12


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Introduction




What is the x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12?




The x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12 is a digital book that was written by Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, and Danny Causey. It is the 12th edition of their popular series of books on the x86 microprocessor. The ebook is available in PDF format and can be downloaded from their official website or from various online platforms.


Why should you read this ebook?




There are many reasons why you should read this ebook if you want to learn about the x86 microprocessor. Here are some of them:



  • The ebook is written by experts who have decades of experience in teaching and working with microprocessors.



  • The ebook is updated with the latest information and developments in the field of microprocessor technology.



  • The ebook is comprehensive and covers all aspects of the x86 microprocessor, from its architecture to its programming and interfacing.



  • The ebook is practical and provides many examples and exercises that help you apply what you learn to real-world situations.



  • The ebook is accessible and easy to understand for beginners as well as advanced learners.



What will you learn from this ebook?




By reading this ebook, you will learn a lot of things about the x86 microprocessor. Here are some of them:



  • You will learn about the history and evolution of the x86 family of microprocessors, from its origins to its current versions.



  • You will learn about the basic features and components of the x86 microprocessor, such as its registers, flags, memory, buses, ports, etc.



  • You will learn about the instruction set and addressing modes of the x86 microprocessor, which are essential for writing programs in assembly language.



  • You will learn how to program the x86 microprocessor in assembly language, using assemblers and debuggers to create and test your code.



  • You will learn how to interface the x86 microprocessor with various peripheral devices, such as keyboards, displays, printers, sensors, etc.



  • You will learn about some advanced topics and applications of the x86 microprocessor, such as interrupts, exceptions, macros, procedures, high-level languages, compilers, etc.



Chapter 1: The x86 Microprocessor Architecture




The history and evolution of the x86 family




The x86 family of microprocessors is one of the most widely used and influential families of microprocessors in the world. The x86 family traces its roots back to the Intel 8086 microprocessor, which was introduced in 1978. The 8086 was a 16-bit microprocessor that could address up to 1 MB of memory. It was followed by the 8088, which was used in the IBM PC, the first personal computer. The 8088 had the same architecture as the 8086, but with an 8-bit data bus instead of a 16-bit one.


The next generation of the x86 family was the 80286, which was introduced in 1982. The 80286 was a 16-bit microprocessor that could address up to 16 MB of memory. It also introduced a new mode of operation called protected mode, which allowed for better memory management and multitasking. The 80286 was used in the IBM PC AT, the successor of the IBM PC.


The third generation of the x86 family was the 80386, which was introduced in 1985. The 80386 was a 32-bit microprocessor that could address up to 4 GB of memory. It also introduced a new mode of operation called virtual mode, which allowed for running multiple programs in protected mode simultaneously. The 80386 was used in many personal computers and workstations in the late 1980s and early 1990s.


The fourth generation of the x86 family was the 80486, which was introduced in 1989. The 80486 was a 32-bit microprocessor that had an integrated floating-point unit (FPU) and a cache memory. It also introduced a new feature called pipelining, which increased the speed and efficiency of instruction execution. The 80486 was used in many high-performance personal computers and servers in the early 1990s.


The fifth generation of the x86 family was the Pentium, which was introduced in 1993. The Pentium was a 32-bit microprocessor that had two parallel pipelines for instruction execution, called superscalar architecture. It also introduced a new feature called branch prediction, which improved the performance of conditional instructions. The Pentium was used in many mainstream personal computers and laptops in the mid-1990s.


The sixth generation of the x86 family was the Pentium Pro, which was introduced in 1995. The Pentium Pro was a 32-bit microprocessor that had an integrated second-level cache and a new microarchitecture called P6. It also introduced a new feature called out-of-order execution, which allowed for reordering instructions for optimal execution. The Pentium Pro was used in many high-end personal computers and servers in the late 1990s.


The seventh generation of the x86 family was the Pentium II, which was introduced in 1997. The Pentium II was a 32-bit microprocessor that had a separate second-level cache module and a new packaging called Slot 1. It also introduced a new feature called MMX (MultiMedia eXtensions), which enhanced the performance of multimedia applications. The Pentium II was used in many personal computers and laptops in the late 1990s.


The eighth generation of the x86 family was the Pentium III, which was introduced in 1999. The Pentium III was a 32-bit microprocessor that had an integrated second-level cache and a new packaging called Socket 370. It also introduced a new feature called SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions), which improved the performance of floating-point operations. The Pentium III was used in many personal computers and laptops in the early 2000s.


32-bit microprocessor that had a new microarchitecture called NetBurst and a new packaging called Socket 478. It also introduced a new feature called Hyper-Threading, which enabled the processor to execute two threads simultaneously. The Pentium IV was used in many personal computers and laptops in the early 2000s.


The tenth generation of the x86 family was the Pentium M, which was introduced in 2003. The Pentium M was a 32-bit microprocessor that had a low-power design and a new microarchitecture called Banias. It also introduced a new feature called SpeedStep, which allowed for adjusting the processor speed and voltage according to the workload. The Pentium M was used in many laptops and mobile devices in the mid-2000s.


The eleventh generation of the x86 family was the Core, which was introduced in 2006. The Core was a 32-bit microprocessor that had a dual-core design and a new microarchitecture called Core. It also introduced a new feature called SSE3 (Streaming SIMD Extensions 3), which added more instructions for multimedia applications. The Core was used in many personal computers and laptops in the late 2000s.


The twelfth generation of the x86 family was the Core 2, which was introduced in 2006. The Core 2 was a 64-bit microprocessor that had a quad-core design and a new microarchitecture called Core 2. It also introduced a new feature called SSE4 (Streaming SIMD Extensions 4), which added more instructions for multimedia applications. The Core 2 was used in many personal computers and laptops in the late 2000s.


Chapter 2: Programming the x86 Microprocessor in Assembly Language




The syntax and conventions of assembly language




Assembly language is a low-level programming language that directly corresponds to the machine code of the x86 microprocessor. Assembly language consists of mnemonics, operands, directives, labels, comments, and symbols. Mnemonics are short names for instructions, such as MOV, ADD, JMP, etc. Operands are data or addresses that are used by instructions, such as registers, memory locations, constants, etc. Directives are commands that tell the assembler how to process the source code, such as .MODEL, .DATA, .CODE, etc. Labels are names that identify memory locations or program sections, such as MAIN, LOOP, END, etc. Comments are notes that explain the code and are ignored by the assembler, such as ; This is a comment. Symbols are characters that have special meanings in assembly language, such as +, -, *, /, :, etc.


The syntax of assembly language is based on rules and conventions that define how to write and format the code. The syntax of assembly language varies depending on the assembler used, but some common conventions are:



  • Each line of code consists of one instruction or directive.



  • Each instruction or directive consists of one or more fields separated by spaces or tabs.



  • The first field is usually the mnemonic or directive name.



  • The second field is usually the destination operand.



  • The third field is usually the source operand.



  • The operands are separated by commas.



  • The labels are followed by colons.



  • The comments are preceded by semicolons.



  • The symbols are used to indicate arithmetic operations, addressing modes, offsets, etc.



Here is an example of assembly language code:



.MODEL SMALL ; Define memory model .STACK 100H ; Define stack size .DATA ; Start data segment MSG DB "Hello World!", "$" ; Define message .CODE ; Start code segment MAIN: ; Main program label MOV AX,@DATA ; Load data segment address MOV DS,AX ; Set data segment register MOV AH,09H ; Set function code for display string MOV DX,OFFSET MSG ; Load offset of message INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt MOV AH,4CH ; Set function code for exit program INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt END MAIN ; End program


The use of assemblers and debuggers




An assembler is a program that converts assembly language code into machine code that can be executed by the x86 microprocessor. An assembler performs two main tasks: translating mnemonics into opcodes and resolving addresses and symbols into values. An assembler can also perform other tasks such as checking syntax errors, generating listings, creating object files, linking libraries, etc.


A debugger is a program that helps to test and debug assembly language code. A debugger allows the programmer to control the execution of the code, examine and modify the contents of registers and memory, set breakpoints and watchpoints, trace instructions and procedures, etc. A debugger can also provide other features such as disassembling machine code, displaying source code, simulating peripheral devices, etc.


There are many assemblers and debuggers available for the x86 microprocessor, such as MASM, TASM, NASM, DEBUG, CodeView, Turbo Debugger, etc. Each assembler and debugger has its own syntax, features, and commands. The programmer should choose the assembler and debugger that best suit their needs and preferences.


The programming examples and exercises in assembly language




The best way to learn assembly language is to practice writing and running programs in assembly language. The x86 PC Mazidi Ebook 12 provides many examples and exercises that illustrate how to program the x86 microprocessor in assembly language. The examples and exercises cover various topics such as data transfer, arithmetic operations, logical operations, control structures, loops, arrays, strings, procedures, macros, interrupts, etc. The examples and exercises are designed to help the programmer understand the concepts and techniques of assembly language programming and apply them to real-world problems.


Here is an example of a program that calculates the sum of two numbers in assembly language:



.MODEL SMALL ; Define memory model .STACK 100H ; Define stack size .DATA ; Start data segment NUM1 DW 1234H ; Define first number NUM2 DW 5678H ; Define second number SUM DW ? ; Define sum .CODE ; Start code segment MAIN: ; Main program label MOV AX,@DATA ; Load data segment address MOV DS,AX ; Set data segment register MOV AX,NUM1 ; Load first number into AX ADD AX,NUM2 ; Add second number to AX MOV SUM,AX ; Store sum into SUM MOV AH,4CH ; Set function code for exit program INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt END MAIN ; End program


Chapter 3: Interfacing the x86 Microprocessor with Peripheral Devices




The concept and types of interfacing




Interfacing is the process of connecting the x86 microprocessor with peripheral devices that perform input/output (I/O) functions. Peripheral devices are external devices that can communicate with the microprocessor and provide additional capabilities and features. Some examples of peripheral devices are keyboards, displays, printers, scanners, cameras, speakers, sensors, actuators, etc.


There are two main types of interfacing: memory-mapped I/O and port-mapped I/O. Memory-mapped I/O is a method of interfacing where the peripheral devices are assigned memory addresses that can be accessed by the microprocessor using the same instructions as for accessing memory locations. Port-mapped I/O is a method of interfacing where the peripheral devices are assigned port numbers that can be accessed by the microprocessor using special instructions such as IN and OUT.


The choice of interfacing method depends on various factors such as the number and type of peripheral devices, the speed and complexity of communication, the availability and cost of resources, etc. The x86 microprocessor supports both memory-mapped I/O and port-mapped I/O methods.


The common peripheral devices and their functions




There are many peripheral devices that can be interfaced with the x86 microprocessor. Here are some of the common ones and their functions:



  • Keyboard: A device that allows the user to enter data and commands using keys.



  • Display: A device that allows the user to see data and information using pixels.



  • Printer: A device that allows the user to produce hard copies of data and information using ink or toner.



  • Scanner: A device that allows the user to capture images or documents using light or laser.



  • Camera: A device that allows the user to capture images or videos using lens or sensor.



  • Speaker: A device that allows the user to hear sounds or music using electromagnetism or piezoelectricity.



  • Sensor: A device that allows the user to measure physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, light, sound, etc.



  • Actuator: A device that allows the user to control physical movements such as rotation, translation, vibration, etc.



The interfacing examples and exercises using various devices




devices. The examples and exercises cover various topics such as interfacing methods, device drivers, data formats, protocols, standards, etc. The examples and exercises are designed to help the programmer understand the concepts and techniques of interfacing and apply them to real-world problems.


Here is an example of a program that interfaces the x86 microprocessor with a keyboard and a display using port-mapped I/O:



.MODEL SMALL ; Define memory model .STACK 100H ; Define stack size .DATA ; Start data segment MSG1 DB "Enter a character: $" ; Define message 1 MSG2 DB 0DH, 0AH, "You entered: $" ; Define message 2 .CODE ; Start code segment MAIN: ; Main program label MOV AX,@DATA ; Load data segment address MOV DS,AX ; Set data segment register MOV AH,09H ; Set function code for display string MOV DX,OFFSET MSG1 ; Load offset of message 1 INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt IN AL,60H ; Read keyboard port OUT 61H,AL ; Write keyboard port MOV AH,09H ; Set function code for display string MOV DX,OFFSET MSG2 ; Load offset of message 2 INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt MOV DL,AL ; Load character into DL MOV AH,02H ; Set function code for display character INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt MOV AH,4CH ; Set function code for exit program INT 21H ; Call DOS interrupt END MAIN ; End program


Chapter 4: Advanced Topics and Applications of the x86 Microprocessor




The use of interrupts and exceptions




Interrupts and exceptions are events that cause the x86 microprocessor to temporarily suspend its normal execution and transfer control to a predefined service routine. Interrupts and exceptions can be classified into two types: hardware and software. Hardware interrupts and exceptions are caused by external signals or internal errors that indicate the occurrence of some condition or event that requires immediate attention. Software interrupts and exceptions are caused by instructions or programs that request the execution of some service or function that is provided by the operating system or the BIOS.


The x86 microprocessor has a fixed number of interrupt and exception vectors that correspond to different types of interrupts and exceptions. Each vector is a memory address that points to the starting location of the service routine that handles the interrupt or exception. The x86 microprocessor uses an interrupt controller chip such as the 8259A to manage the hardware interrupts and an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) to store the interrupt and exception vectors. The x86 microprocessor also uses some registers such as the flags register, the instruction pointer (IP), the code segment (CS), etc. to save and restore the state of the processor before and after handling the interrupt or exception.


The x86 microprocessor can use interrupts and exceptions for various purposes such as input/output operations, timer functions, keyboard functions, disk functions, memory management functions, error handling functions, etc.


The use of macros and procedures




Macros and procedures are ways of organizing and reusing assembly language code. Macros and procedures can help to simplify the code, reduce errors, improve readability, enhance modularity, etc.


A macro is a name that represents a sequence of instructions or directives that can be inserted into the code wherever needed. A macro can have parameters that allow for passing values or expressions to the macro. A macro can also have local labels that are unique to each instance of the macro. A macro is defined using the .MACRO directive and ended using the .ENDM directive.


A procedure is a name that represents a block of code that performs a specific task or function. A procedure can have parameters that allow for passing values or addresses to the procedure. A procedure can also have local variables that are allocated in the stack segment. A procedure is defined using a label followed by a colon and ended using a RET instruction.


Here is an example of a macro and a procedure in assembly language:



.MODEL SMALL ; Define memory model .STACK 100H ; Define stack size .DATA ; Start data segment .MACRO SWAP X,Y ; Define swap macro with two parameters X and Y MOV AX,X ; Move X into AX XCHG AX,Y ; Exchange AX with Y MOV X,AX ; Move AX into X .ENDM ; End macro definition .CODE ; Start code segment MAIN: ; Main program label MOV AX,@DATA ; Load data segment address MOV DS,AX ; Set data segment register MOV BX,1234H ; Load 1234H into BX MOV CX,5678H ; Load 5678H into CX CALL DISPLAY ; Call display procedure SWAP BX,


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