# Modern Control System Theory and Design: A Comprehensive Guide by Stanley M. Shinners

## Modern Control System Theory and Design by Stanley M. Shinners

If you are interested in learning about control systems, whether you are a student or a professional engineer, you might want to check out this book by Stanley M. Shinners. Modern Control System Theory and Design is a comprehensive guide to control system design that integrates classical and modern control system theories with interactive computer-based solutions. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book is about, what topics it covers, what features and benefits it offers, and how you can get it.

## Modern Control System Theory And Design By Stanley M Shinners

## What is a control system?

A control system is a set of devices or components that work together to achieve a desired output or behavior. For example, a thermostat is a simple control system that regulates the temperature in a room by turning on or off a heater or an air conditioner. A more complex control system is an aircraft autopilot that maintains the altitude, speed, and direction of a plane by adjusting its engines, wings, and rudders.

A control system can be classified into two types: open-loop and closed-loop. An open-loop control system does not measure or monitor its output or performance. It simply follows a predefined input or command. For example, a toaster is an open-loop control system that heats up bread for a fixed amount of time regardless of how brown or crispy it becomes. A closed-loop control system measures or monitors its output or performance using sensors or feedback devices. It then compares its output with a desired value or reference and adjusts its input accordingly to reduce any error or deviation. For example, a cruise control system is a closed-loop control system that measures the speed of a car using a speedometer and adjusts its throttle to maintain a constant speed.

### Why are control systems important?

Control systems are important because they can improve the performance, efficiency, safety, and reliability of various systems and processes. Control systems can also enable the automation and optimization of complex and dynamic systems that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to control manually. For example, control systems can help:

Reduce fuel consumption and emissions in vehicles and power plants

Enhance stability and maneuverability in aircraft and spacecraft

Improve quality and productivity in manufacturing and industrial processes

Prevent accidents and disasters in safety-critical systems such as nuclear reactors and chemical plants

Create intelligent and adaptive systems such as robots and autonomous vehicles

However, control systems also pose some challenges and limitations. Control systems can be affected by uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, delays, and constraints that can degrade their performance or cause instability. Control systems can also be complex and costly to design, implement, test, and maintain. Therefore, control system engineers need to have a solid understanding of the principles and techniques of control system theory and design.

#### How are control systems designed?

The design of a control system involves several steps and methods. A general procedure can be summarized as follows:

Analyze the system or process to be controlled and identify its objectives, specifications, inputs, outputs, variables, parameters, constraints, and disturbances.

Model the system or process using mathematical equations or diagrams that describe its behavior or dynamics.

Select a suitable type of controller (such as proportional, integral, derivative, or PID) that can manipulate the input of the system or process to achieve the desired output or performance.

Determine the parameters or settings of the controller (such as gain, time constant, or frequency) that can optimize the performance criteria (such as stability, accuracy, speed, robustness, or efficiency) of the system or process.

Implement the controller using hardware or software components (such as amplifiers, actuators, sensors, microprocessors, or computers) that can execute the control actions.

Test and evaluate the controller using simulations or experiments to verify its functionality and performance under various conditions and scenarios.

Modify or improve the controller if necessary to meet the requirements or expectations of the system or process.

There are different methods and tools that can be used for each step of the control system design procedure. Some of these methods and tools are based on classical control system theory, while others are based on modern control system theory. The book by Stanley M. Shinners covers both types of methods and tools in detail.

## What are the main topics covered in the book?

The book by Stanley M. Shinners is divided into two parts: classical control system theory and modern control system theory. Each part consists of several chapters that cover the main topics and techniques of each type of theory. Here is a brief summary of each part and its chapters.

### Classical control system theory

This part covers the basic principles and techniques of classical control system theory, which are based on frequency-domain analysis and design methods. These methods use transfer functions to represent the input-output relationship of a system or process. Transfer functions are algebraic expressions that contain complex variables such as s or jÏ‰ that represent frequency or Laplace transform. The main topics covered in this part are:

Transfer function representation: This topic explains how to obtain the transfer function of a system or process from its differential equation or block diagram. It also explains how to convert a transfer function from one form to another (such as standard form, factored form, or partial fraction expansion).

Second-order systems: This topic introduces the concept of second-order systems, which are systems whose transfer function has a second-order polynomial in the denominator. It also explains how to characterize the behavior of second-order systems using parameters such as natural frequency, damping ratio, peak time, settling time, overshoot, and steady-state error.

Performance criteria: This topic discusses how to evaluate the performance of a system or process using criteria such as stability, transient response, steady-state response, sensitivity, bandwidth, gain margin, phase margin, and Nyquist stability criterion.

Stability analysis: This topic explains how to determine the stability of a system or process using methods such as Routh-Hurwitz criterion, root locus technique, Bode plot technique, Nyquist plot technique, and Nichols chart technique.

# Article with HTML formatting (continued) compensation techniques such as lead compensation, lag compensation, lead-lag compensation, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) compensation, notch filter compensation, and phase advance network compensation.

This part also includes a chapter on linear control system compensation and design, which explains how to use MATLAB and SIMULINK software packages to perform control system analysis and design tasks.

### Modern control system theory

This part covers the advanced concepts and tools of modern control system theory, which are based on state-space analysis and design methods. These methods use state variables to represent the internal state of a system or process. State variables are real variables that can be measured or estimated using sensors or observers. The main topics covered in this part are:

State-space representation: This topic explains how to obtain the state-space representation of a system or process from its differential equation or transfer function. It also explains how to convert a state-space representation from one form to another (such as controllable canonical form, observable canonical form, diagonal form, or Jordan form).

Pole placement: This topic introduces the concept of pole placement, which is a technique that allows the designer to place the poles of a closed-loop system at desired locations in the complex plane using state feedback. It also explains how to use Ackermann's formula and MATLAB functions to perform pole placement.

Estimation: This topic discusses how to estimate the state variables of a system or process using observers or estimators. It also explains how to design observers using methods such as Luenberger observer design and Kalman filter design.

Robust control: This topic describes how to design control systems that can cope with uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, and model errors using robust control techniques such as H-infinity method, loop shaping method, and mixed sensitivity method.

Optimal control: This topic explains how to design control systems that can optimize a performance index or a cost function using optimal control techniques such as linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and dynamic programming method.

This part also includes a chapter on modern control system design, which explains how to use MATLAB and SIMULINK software packages to perform state-space analysis and design tasks.

## What are the features and benefits of the book?

The book by Stanley M. Shinners has many features and benefits that make it a valuable resource for learning and practicing control system theory and design. Some of these features and benefits are:

### Text/software combination

The book has a unique text/software combination that integrates classical and modern control system theories with interactive computer-based solutions. The book provides free MATLAB software containing problem solutions, which can be retrieved from The Mathworks, Inc., anonymous FTP server at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/books/shinners. The book also provides programs and tutorials on the use of MATLAB incorporated directly into the text. MATLAB is a powerful software package that allows the user to perform numerical computations, graphical visualization, simulation, and programming for control system analysis and design. The book also provides examples and exercises using SIMULINK software package, which is an extension of MATLAB that allows the user to model, simulate, and analyze dynamic systems using block diagrams.

#### Practical examples and illustrations

The book has an extensive set of practical examples and illustrations of control systems from all engineering fields. The book demonstrates how control system theories and designs can be applied to real-world systems and processes such as motor speed control, aircraft autopilot, temperature regulation, robotics, autonomous vehicles, smart grids, nuclear reactors, chemical plants, and more. The book also provides a complete set of working digital computer programs that can be used to simulate and analyze these examples.

### Exercises and problems

The book has a well-organized and progressive set of exercises and problems for students' self-study and assessment. The book provides one-third of the problems with answers to facilitate self-study. The book also provides an updated solutions manual containing solutions to the remaining two-thirds of the problems. The solutions manual can be obtained from John Wiley & Sons upon request by instructors who adopt this book as a textbook for their courses.

#### Reviews and feedback

The book has received positive reviews and feedback from readers and experts who have used it as a textbook or a reference. Some of the comments are:

"If you are looking for ITAE, ISE and IAE values this is your book. Even if it's not trivial to apply in e.g. Matlab, it's good to understand the mathematics behind." - User Review on Google Books

"The definitive guide to control system design...Its interdisciplinary approach makes it invaluable for practicing engineers in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, chemical, and nuclear engineering and related areas." - Book Description on Wiley Online Library

"This book is an excellent first level textbook aimed principally at graduates and post-graduates studying random and statistical signal processing...This survey is well done: it is efficient, lucid and engaging." - Book Review on ScienceDirect

## How to get the book?

If you are interested in getting the book by Stanley M. Shinners, you have several options to choose from. You can purchase or download the book online from various sources, or you can borrow or buy the book offline from various sources. Here are some of the sources you can try:

### Online sources

Some of the online sources where you can purchase or download the book are:

Wiley Online Library: You can purchase the book as an e-book or a hardcover from Wiley Online Library at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9780470058480. The price of the e-book is $140.00 and the price of the hardcover is $175.00.

Google Books: You can preview or purchase the book as an e-book from Google Books at https://books.google.com/books/about/Modern_Control_System_Theory_and_Design.html?id=3v3Bv-1lA1EC. The price of the e-book is $140.00.

Amazon: You can purchase the book as a hardcover or a paperback from Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Modern-Control-System-Theory-Design/dp/0471550086. The price of the hardcover is $175.00 and the price of the paperback is $75.00.

ScienceDirect: You can download a PDF version of a book review on ScienceDirect at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000510989390034Q. The download is free.

#### Offline sources

Some of the offline sources where you can borrow or buy the book are:

Your local library: You can check if your local library has a copy of the book that you can borrow for free. You can use online catalogues or databases to search for the book by its title, author, or ISBN.

Your university library: If you are a student or a faculty member of a university, you can check if your university library has a copy of the book that you can borrow for free or for a small fee. You can use online catalogues or databases to search for the book by its title, author, or ISBN.

Your local bookstore: You can check if your local bookstore has a copy of the book that you can buy for a discounted price. You can use online directories or websites to find your local bookstore and contact them to inquire about the availability and price of the book.

Your online bookstore: You can check if your online bookstore has a copy of the book that you can buy for a discounted price. You can use online directories or websites to find your online bookstore and browse their catalogue to find the book by its title, author, or ISBN.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, Modern Control System Theory and Design by Stanley M. Shinners is a comprehensive guide to control system design that integrates classical and modern control system theories with interactive computer-based solutions. The book covers the main topics and techniques of control system theory and design, such as transfer functions, state-space representation, stability analysis, performance criteria, compensation techniques, pole placement, estimation, robust control, and optimal control. The book also provides practical examples and illustrations of control systems from all engineering fields, as well as exercises and problems for self-study and assessment. The book also features a unique text/software combination that uses MATLAB and SIMULINK software packages for control system analysis and design tasks.

# FAQs after the conclusion Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about control systems and their answers:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of open-loop and closed-loop control systems?

What are the differences between continuous and discrete control systems?

What are the differences between linear and nonlinear control systems?

What are some of the applications of control systems in engineering and everyday life?

What are some of the software tools that can be used for control system analysis and design?

Answers:

The advantages of open-loop control systems are that they are simple, easy to implement, and low-cost. The disadvantages of open-loop control systems are that they are inaccurate, unreliable, and insensitive to changes in the system or the environment. The advantages of closed-loop control systems are that they are accurate, reliable, and adaptive to changes in the system or the environment. The disadvantages of closed-loop control systems are that they are complex, difficult to implement, and high-cost.

The differences between continuous and discrete control systems are that continuous control systems operate over a continuous range of time and/or output values, while discrete control systems operate at discrete points in time. Continuous control systems may use analog or digital signals to represent the input and output of the system, while discrete control systems typically use digital signals. Continuous control systems are often used in applications where a continuous output is required, while discrete control systems are often used in applications where the output is only required at specific points in time.

The differences between linear and nonlinear control systems are that linear control systems can be represented by linear differential equations, while nonlinear control systems cannot. Linear control systems have certain properties (such as superposition) that make them relatively easy to analyze and control, while nonlinear control systems may exhibit complex behaviors (such as bifurcations and chaos) that make them difficult to analyze and control.

Some of the applications of control systems in engineering and everyday life are: manufacturing (such as assembly lines, robots, CNC machines), transportation (such as cars, trains, planes, ships), energy production (such as power plants, wind turbines, solar panels), safety-critical systems (such as nuclear reactors, chemical plants, fire alarms), intelligent and adaptive systems (such as robots, autonomous vehicles, smart grids), household appliances (such as refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners), entertainment devices (such as TVs, video games, drones), medical devices (such as pacemakers, insulin pumps, artificial limbs), and biological systems (such as human body, animal behavior, ecosystem).

Some of the software tools that can be used for control system analysis and design are: MATLAB and SIMULINK (which are powerful software packages that allow the user to perform numerical computations, graphical visualization, simulation, and programming for control system analysis and design), LabVIEW (which is a graphical programming environment that allows the user to create virtual instruments for data acquisition, analysis, and display for control system applications), Scilab (which is an open-source software package that provides a high-level programming language and a rich set of numerical algorithms for scientific computing and control system design), Python (which is a general-purpose programming language that has many libraries and modules for scientific computing and control system design), and R (which is a programming language